Almuthana Kh.Hameed has his expertise in genetic engineering and molecular biology. He was submited one gen in NCBI as name Muthana 1. He is teaching in General Directorate of Education in Anbar, Department of Heet Education, Ministry of Education, Iraq and nowadays studying in University of Anbar to achieve his master degree in biology - molecular biology.
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular genome placed within the mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the cell, had a smaller 1.1 kbp fragment and called the control region (D-loop). This paper aims to study most of this region by using the sequencing technique and found the degree of variation characteristics of this fragment. Geneaid extraction kit was used for extracted the whole genomic DNA, and then amplified the D-loop fragment by PCR with specific primers. The PCR products were sequenced and detected variation by using the MEGA7 program. Different polymorphisms discovered in this region for both blood and muscle samples from Iraqi population. The accumulation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the displacement loop of mtDNA may be associated with ageing. In this study, the SNPs in the mitochondrial D loop of blood and muscle samples were identified, and their association with ageing was estimated. The majority of the Polymorphism nucleotide were locations in the D-loop region. The nucleotide transition, transversion, insertion and deletion were causes the important variations in nucleotide sequencing. The total number of mutations in blood samples of young individuals was 37 mutation (4.3%) and 48 mutation (5.6%) in muscle samples for same individuals while the total number of mutations in blood samples of older individuals was 667 mutation (78%) and 93 mutation (10.8%) in muscle samples for same individuals. There are significant differences in the number of mutations in older people, specifically for blood samples incidence and frequency of mutations were greater than those of younger age groups were. The analysis of genetic polymorphisms in the mitochondrial D loop may help identify the most important variation in both young and adult Iraqi individuals.
Pavel Timonov, MD, PhD is a chief assistant professor at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. He is an author of more than 40 publications in national and international journals and 50 presentations in scientific conferences concerning forensic anthropology, YKL-40 tissue expression, facial assessment. Currently working on the following research projects: “Cephalometric examination and 3D virtual modelling of the face aiming at construction and visualization of 3D facial statistics and creating cephalofacial database” and “Study on a new prognostic biomarker in severe brain injuries” funded by the National Science Fund of the Ministry of Education, Bulgaria. Research interest: Forensic pathology, Forensic anthropology, sexual dimorphism, trace evidence, death at car accident, brain injury, brain tumors
Statement of the problem.Fatal head trauma is a major cause of death in children and adults. Postmortem differentiation of non-accidental head trauma from accidental head trauma can be a complicated process. Methodology and theoretical orientation. Many studies have focused on the importance of optic nerve sheath hemorrhage as a postmortem finding in cases of Shaken Baby Syndrome, but this research has a strong impact on adults. Complete autopsies were performed on 20 adults died of acute intracranial injuries after head trauma induced by acceleration-deceleration forces. Findings. Optic chiasm and optic nerve hemorrhages were noted in all cases. Their mechanism of production may result from severe rotational and translational acceleration. Conclusions. Therefore, this investigation should be performed in all autopsy cases where an accidental head trauma is suspected and where there is no reliable history/witnesses, confession or antemortem examination. Moreover in suspected case of subdural hematoma in adults, these findings may be used as an additional method in enabling the establishment of traumatic subdural hematoma from non-traumatic subdural hematoma