Jeanne Marie Stumpf-Carome completed her PhD at the age of 47 years, University of California, Berkeley, following an M.A. in Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, 1978, and an M.S. in Urban Studies, Cleveland State University, 1980. She has pursued post-graduate study at the Gestalt Institute of Cleveland, 1999 to the present. She is an Associate Professor, Anthropology teaching anthropology and sociology course. She is a Fulbright Scholar 1988-89, Singapore. She is the Country Specialist for Amnesty International USA, for Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, 1996 to the present. She is the first Executive Director of The Flats Oxbow Association in Cleveland, Ohio.
Explored in this paper is another facet of my nine-year research project,participant-observation in the small, but growing, niche ecotourism market —endangered non-human primates. My specifi c concerns are the possible tourismrelated pathways of zoonotic disease transmission. Considered here, however, is a less exotic aspect of the animal-humanenvironmental interface, tourist contact with domesticated animals, i.e., livestock. Entering the United States, a Customs Declaration form is “signed.” Item 12 asks “Yes” or “No”: “I have (We have) been in close proximity of livestock: (such as touching or handling).” Th is paper delves the signifi cance and possible consequences of Item 12 of the Customs Declaration form. Aspects of livestock as a “reservoir” of zoonotic transmission became apparent during recent travel in Peru. My research interest for this trip focused on animal-related tourist souvenirs. However, my attention was drawn to the activities of onetraveler. A young person of high school age accompanied by relatives, petted every cat, dog, guinea pig, llama, or alpaca whichcrossed their path. Modes of disease transmission can be by direct contact, oral, reproductive, aerosol, fomate (contaminated inanimate objects), environmental (common source), or vector-borne: petting combines some of these. Over 200 zoonotic diseases are known–bacterial, viral, fungal, parasitic, or by unconventional agents. Disease transmission between animals andhumans can be in either direction, animal-to-human, zoonoses, and human-to-animal, a reverse zoonoses, anthroponoses. As concurrent reservoirs, these diseases can be considered as anthropozoonoses.According to the World Health Organization,“About 75% of the new diseases that have aff ected humans over the past ten years have been caused by pathogens originatingfrom an animal or from products of animal origin. Many of these diseases have the potential to spread through various means over long distances and to become global problems.” In this complicated matrix, considered is the power of one.